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Konu Başlığı : Supplements for Weight Loss: Do They Work?

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23-06-2022, Saat: 03:29
Supplements for Weight Loss: Do They Work?
  • Most herbal and dietary supplements don’t lead to weight loss, a review of existing studies has found.

  • Researchers looked into data for green tea extract, guar gum, and acupuncture, among many others.

  • Only 16 studies showed a difference in weight between participants taking supplements and a placebo.

  • Researchers found that the weight loss was less than 1 pound for some people, and not consistent for any of the supplements examined.
Weight loss supplements come in a variety of forms, including pills, gummies, powders, and liquids, like teas.
They often tout fast and easy weight loss with a promise that you can lose inches without having to rely solely on eating a balanced diet or exercising regularly.
And they’re extremely popular. The weight loss supplement industry was worth $6.5 billion in 2020.
But do these supplements actually work?
A new comprehensive study published in the journal ObesityTrusted Source on June 23 has found that dietary supplements do not result in dramatic weight loss as they claim.
In fact, it’s rare that people who take these supplements lose any weight, the research showed.
There’s been an ongoing debate about whether weight loss supplements work and whether they deliver on their promises.
In this study, researchers reviewed 315 existing clinical trials of weight loss supplements and alternative therapies as part of the study. They found most studies were biased.
Only 16 studies managed to demonstrate weight loss in participants, ranging from less than 1 pound up to 11 pounds. Weight loss was also not consistent among the study participants.
The researchers reviewed the following 12 ingredients:
  • calcium and vitamin D

  • chitosan

  • chocolate/cocoa

  • chromium

  • ephedra or caffeine

  • garcinia and/or hydroxycitrate

  • green tea

  • guar gum

  • conjugated linoleic acid (CLA)

  • phaseolus

  • phenylpropylamine

  • pyruvate
Other non-supplement therapies that were studied included acupuncture and mind-body interventions like mindfulness and meditation.
“One of the major reasons we wanted to conduct this review was to determine the quality of the evidence to guide the membership [of The Obesity Society]. The results suggest that more high quality evidence is needed before firm recommendations should be made,” said corresponding author Dr. John Batsis, associate professor in the division of geriatric medicine at the University of North Carolina (UNC) School of Medicine and in the department of nutrition at the UNC Gillings School of Global Public Health.
Sharon Zarabi, RD, program director at Northwell Health’s Katz Institute for Women’s Health in New York City and Westchester, said the study outcome was not surprising “because obesity is a very complex disease and there will never be a magic pill to cure” it.
“Even if there was a supplement, ingredient, herb, tincture, etc., that would work, supplements are not regulated by the FDA. Understanding the manufacturing practices, degree of active ingredients versus fillers, dose, quality, and efficacy, will be impossible to formulate,” she told Healthline.
Zarabi pointed out that changing your lifestyle is likely the only way to manage your weight.
“Taking a cocoa pill or ginseng supplement will never work if you don’t change your lifestyle because your body is always defending you from weight loss, and you have to be an active participant in healthy living to keep it off — even with surgical procedures (bariatric surgery),” she said.
Why are regulations needed for natural health products?
Before January 1st, 2004, natural health products (NHPs) were sold as either drugs or food under the Food and Drugs Act and Regulations because there was no other category under which to classify them.
If classified as a drug, natural health products must follow the drug review process (including proving safety and efficacy through clinical trials) and have a Drug Identification Number (DIN) to be sold. If classified as a food, natural health products can make only very limited health claims and do not have to provide much safety information on their labels.
As more and more Canadians began to use NHPs, it became obvious that neither classification (as either a drug or food) was appropriate, and that a new policy which would directly address the unique nature of NHPs was needed. The Natural Health Products Regulations were developed to address this need.
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2. Natural health products are regulated as a subset of drugs under the Food and Drugs Act. Why doesn’t Health Canada regulate NHPs as a distinct category separate from both food and drugs?
Under the Food and Drugs Act, NHPs must be classified as either a food or a drug since there is no other category in which to classify them. Because NHPs are taken for therapeutic reasons and not for caloric purposes or to address hunger, they are more similar to drugs than food.
Under the current Food and Drug Regulations, foods can make only limited diet-related or nutritional content claims (and not treatment claims, for example). Also, the current regulations do not include a complete good manufacturing practices framework which is needed to ensure the quality and safety of NHPs. Finally, foods are generally not subject to pre-market review and assessment by Health Canada before they can be sold.
During consultations on NHPs, Canadians consistently asked for controls to make sure what is on the label is in the bottle and ensure a pre-market assessment of health claims. While creating another category distinct from both food and drugs was considered, an amendment at the level of the Act would have been necessary. Because the timelines and legislative process needed for a change of this magnitude would be long, it was decided that natural health products would be considered drugs under the Act, but with a set of regulations specific to NHPs.
Health Canada is currently conducting a comprehensive review of its health protection legislation to replace outdated statutes with a new health protection legislative regime. The objectives of the legislative review are to strengthen and modernize the legislation, and to provide policy direction in the area of health protection. The creation of additional categories for certain classes of health or therapeutic products may be considered as a part of this process.
Chondroitin Sulfate
Chondroitin sulfate is a chemical found in human and animal cartilage. It is commonly used by mouth with glucosamine or other ingredients for osteoarthritis.
Chondroitin sulfate is one of the building blocks of cartilage. In osteoarthritis, the cartilage in the joints breaks down. Taking chondroitin sulfate might slow this breakdown. It is usually manufactured from animal sources, such as shark and cow cartilage. It can also be made in a lab.
Chondroitin sulfate is used for osteoarthritis and cataracts. It is often used together with other ingredients, including manganese ascorbate, hyaluronic acid, collagen peptides, or glucosamine. Chondroitin sulfate is also used for many other conditions, but there is no good scientific evidence to support these uses.

Possibly Effective for
  • Cataracts. An injectable solution containing chondroitin sulfate and sodium hyaluronate is approved by the FDA to protect the eye during cataract surgery. It is not clear if using it in a different form will help.

  • Osteoarthritis. Taking chondroitin sulfate by mouth seems to provide some relief from osteoarthritis pain and improve function. High quality, pharmaceutical-grade products have shown the most benefit. Chondrosulf (IBSA Institut Biochimique SA), Chondrosan (Bioiberica, S.A.) and Structum (Laboratoires Pierre Fabre) are examples of these products.
There is interest in using chondroitin sulfate for a number of other purposes, but there isn't enough reliable information to say whether it might be helpful.
When taken by mouth: Chondroitin sulfate is likely safe when used for up to 6 years. It can cause some mild stomach pain and nausea. Other possible side effects include bloating, diarrhea, and constipation.
When placed into the eye: Chondroitin sulfate is possibly safe when used together with other ingredients in an eye drop.
Chondroitin: Everything You Need to Know
Chondroitin is a chemical found primarily in joint cartilage. A form of chondroitin, known as chondroitin sulfate, is manufactured from animal byproducts and sold as a dietary supplement to aid in the treatment of osteoarthritis.
Chondroitin sulfate is often co-formulated with glucosamine sulfate, a naturally occurring compound found in joint fluid, under the presumption that they can slow or even reverse the loss of joint cartilage.
Chondroitin supplements are intended to enhance the shock-absorbing properties of joint cartilage and block enzymes that break down cartilage. Unlike other dietary supplements used to treat arthritis, chondroitin has undergone a significant amount of clinical research to evaluate its safety and effectiveness.
Starting in 2004, a multicenter trial funded by the National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health (formerly called the National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine; a department of the National Institutes of Health) and the National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases aimed to evaluate the purported benefits of chondroitin sulfate and/or glucosamine sulfate.
The Glucosamine/Chondroitin Arthritis Intervention Trial (GAIT) was a large, randomized, placebo-controlled trial that was conducted in two parts:
  • The first two-year study aimed to assess whether chondroitin and/or glucosamine could alleviate the pain of knee osteoarthritis.

  • The second two-year study was designed to evaluate whether the supplements could reduce the loss of joint cartilage in people with knee osteoarthritis.
Chondroitin Sulfate: Benefits, Downsides, Dosage, and More
Chondroitin sulfate is a popular supplement that people often use to help manage joint pain.
Though it’s naturally produced in the body, some people choose to take it as a supplement for its potential joint-building properties. Many of these people take it for osteoarthritis (OA).
This article explains everything you need to know about chondroitin sulfate, including its benefits, recommended dosage, and some potential downsides.
We use the terms “chondroitin sulfate” and “chondroitin” interchangeably throughout this article.
Chondroitin sulfate is a compound present naturally in the body as an essential part of hyaline cartilage, a tissue that cushions your joints.
You can also find it as a dietary supplement, often combined with glucosamine, another structural component of cartilage.
In addition, you can also find it in certain animal-based foods, including bone broths, stews, soups, and other dishes that contain cuts of meat with connective tissue.
People commonly use it to help combat the symptoms of osteoarthritis (OA), a degenerative joint disease in which the cartilage at the ends of your bones wears down, causing pain and increasing the risk of fracture.


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